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IT Security

Five Basic (And Cheap!) Tasks That Will Dramatically Improve IT Security For Small Businesses


First off, let me address your burning question that I know you’re thinking right now: “Why should I should care about IT security for my business? I’m too small to be a target – I have nothing to steal”.

The quick and simple answer to this question is that every IT system has something of value – from your businesses intellectual property that can be sold to foreign competitors through to using your business web server to host pay-for-view websites for pedophiles.

The next question I guess you will ask is; “IT security is far too expensive and provides no ROI, so what’s the benefit to my business?”.

Let me approach this question from a different angle. Part of my role as a professional IT security consultant involves helping businesses recover from IT security breaches. From my experience, the cost of recovering from a breach is 100 times more expensive than being proactive and implementing some basic security controls – five of which I will present in this post.

As an example, if you accept credit cards as payment and your business suffers a breach that results in credit card data being stolen, you will more than likely face some very expensive remediation tasks set by your acquiring bank under the PCI DSS standard, which includes the five tips I provide in this post.

So with the questions answered and your interest in IT security slightly piqued, let me introduce these five cheap and easy to implement tips that will dramatically improve your businesses IT security position.

The five tips are based on the Australian Department of Defense’s “Top 4 Strategies to Mitigate Targeted Cyber Intrusions”, which are said to mitigate at least 85% of intrusion techniques when fully implemented.

IT security is a daunting prospect for most small businesses, mostly because it appears complicated and expensive. Small businesses focus on the old proverb of “spend a dollar to earn three” and IT security does not directly appear to add anything to revenue. Of course, this way of thinking is dangerous because when you do suffer a breach, it’s far more expensive in terms of cost, time and brand reputation to fix and recover.

However, I am not here to be another IT security professional warning you about impending doom – let’s just focus on getting some security in-place that will dramatically help your IT status while not draining funds and time from your immediate focus, which is to earn revenue.

Below are five recommendations that will dramatically reduce your chances of an IT breach when implemented correctly. Just to recap; it’s far costlier to recover from a breach than being proactive and applying some basic IT security changes to your system.

1. Remove All Local Admin Rights From Your Staff’s Computer Accounts

I am guessing that your staff have local admin rights to their work computers – meaning they can install, update and remove whatever software they want from their work computer. You may not even be aware of this and think it’s just the norm. However, having “local admin rights” also allows the user to turn off services, such as the local firewall and anti-virus software, making their computer very vulnerable to attack.

One issue that is very common is staff downloading software from the Internet to help with tasks. Often, the software is free and easy to download but, in many cases, it can contain additional malicious software such as ransomware and “backdoors” that allow hackers to steal data and take control of your computers. Free software containing viruses and other nasties is not rare: the Internet is filled with the stuff.

By removing the “local admin” rights from your staff’s computer accounts you will stop this from occurring.

I know this is a pain because every time someone wants something installed they will need the person with local admin rights to install the software; however, this is a major step for protecting your computer systems from a breach.

For information on how to remove local admin rights from a version of operating system, just search Google – for example, “how do I remove local admin rights from Windows 7?

2. Patch Your IT Systems

Patching operating systems and software applications is not hard – it’s a matter of setting up a patching schedule and sticking to it.

This is very important because patches often address a newly discovered security vulnerability. There is a constant race between the software vendors and the baddies as to who finds a vulnerability first. If the vendor wins the race then a patch can be released to fix systems before the baddies can take advantage of the vulnerability. But if the business does not apply the patch in a timely manner (normally a maximum of a month after patch release) then the baddie can still take advantage.

Baddies are constantly scanning computer systems around the world for vulnerabilities – this is an automated process so you may think no one cares about your business or you’re too small to be discovered but that’s not the focus for the baddie. Any system can be of value – from stealing IP to using your system to host a web server for questionable or even illegal purposes.

A monthly patching schedule is what most businesses adopt – it’s not so regular that it causes constant disruption to your BAU processes but not so lengthy that it increases the risk of a breach because a critical security patch was not installed quickly enough.

One approach is to patch a subset of computers in your work place such as the less critical systems (not the system containing the payroll application!) at the end of each month and let the systems run for a week. If no issues occur, like the new patches causing crashes, then patch the remaining systems. Of course, make sure each system is backed-up first before applying any major patch.

3. Use Unique And Strong Passwords

You have heard this advice from everyone, right? Never use a password more than once and ensure its “strong” – meaning the password is at-least 7/8 characters in length and uses numbers, letters (lowercase and uppercase) with some symbols for good measure.

I don’t want to bore you and say the same thing as everyone else. Oh wait, I just did!

Instead I will provide a very common example of why you should use unique passwords, at least for your most important accounts.

It’s well known that people re-use passwords and the reasons why are obvious. A rough count on the number of accounts I have that are accessed with a password weekly such as websites, email accounts, bank accounts is 40!

Hackers also know that people will reuse their passwords, including passwords used for online bank accounts and other sensitive accounts. All the hacker needs is one breach from an online service that has poor security to steal the user accounts database containing your password. The hacker can use social media to locate more personal details about you, such as where you live, what services you use, locate a complaint you made about your bank via Twitter and then attempt to access your online bank account and other sensitive accounts.

It is also very easy to work out from social media where you work (thanks, LinkedIn) so the hacker can try to access your work systems using your stolen password. A business will often allow remote access to their computer systems (such as email and CMS) for their staff so the hacker can attempt to use the stolen password without even being physically present at your office.

You may ask why would email be a target? Well, say the email account that has been accessed by the hacker is Bob’s who is in-charge of payroll. The hacker can read through Bob’s inbox and find out if the business uses a third party payroll system and if so send the third party an email changing bank accounts for a subset of employees for their salary. The new bank account details are of course managed by the hacker.

Implementing a password vault that your staff can use such as LastPass can help enforce the use of unique and strong passwords for business systems, including third party systems such payroll, invoicing, CMS, etc. Password vaults often allow a user to log into a system without showing the password, making it painless to use strong and unique passwords since the user does not have to manually type one in or write it down so they don’t have to access the password vault again.

As a final note, I would like to address the task of forcing passwords to be changed every 30 days or less. Personally, I don’t like it as it forces the user to think up a new password every time. Ultimately people end up using slight variants of the same password to make the change quick and memorable.

Unfortunately, hackers know this and will use software that automatically tries variants of passwords using pattern algorithms based around the password’s structure. So even if the hacker doesn’t have the exact password you used for your bank account and work systems, your human mind will cause a pattern to emerge when selecting a variant, which the hacker’s software will use to guess the password.

Instead of forcing a staff member to change their account password every 30 days or so, I would encourage the creation of a strong password they can remember (tips on how are here) and only force a change every 6 months or after a security breach. Don’t take my word on this topic as the mighty NIST goes even further and recommends a password is not changed unless it’s compromised or forgotten.

4. Think Before You Click

This is probably the hardest of the five tips to implement as it relies 100% on human behavior.

The “Think before you click” statement addresses the need for people to think first before clicking on a URL to visit a webpage or email attachment. Often viruses and other nasties enter the business environment due to people not thinking before clicking, such as payroll staff clicking on an email attachment named “invoice” or HR clicking on an attachment named “CV”.

It is very hard to work out if an email attachment is malicious or a URL takes you to a web page with a malware payload but it’s important to try as anti-virus software is not as effective as it used to be. These days, relying solely on anti-virus software to stop all nasties such as ransomware from infecting a computer is very risky.

So, what do you do?

Well, the first thing is to still use anti-virus software as there are many nasties that will be detected, but not be 100% reliant on it to block everything.

Next, discuss with your staff how a malicious email could be detected by using key indicators such as who the sender is, the tone and style of the email content, the quality of the English language, if the email just doesn’t look right, etc…

Here is an example of how this works.

If your business sells car parts to the local community and you receive an email with instructions in poor English to open the attachment for an overseas order and the sender’s email address looks strange then it is probably a good bet that the email attachment is malicious.

There are no guides or rules that will guarantee you will be able detect all the emails containing virus-infected attachments or dodgy URLs. It’s up to each business to determine how their customers, prospects, services providers, etc. communicate with them.

If the email is written with poor English and encourages you to open the attachment for an overseas order and your business only deals with the local community then you should treat that email with suspicion.

Likewise, if an email comes in suggesting you click on the URL provided in the email and the URL looks strange to you then that’s another email to be suspicious of.

Or another email states your PayPal account has been frozen and to click the link to reset your password but the URL in the email doesn’t look like a normal PayPal secured URL then that’s another one that should arouse suspicion.

5. Change Default Passwords On Devices And Software

Do you remember the scare about a year ago about people accessing baby monitors over the Internet and yelling at babies through the baby monitors?

How can this happen?

Its actually very easy and very common if you do not change the default password to access the settings on a device. Most Internet-enabled baby monitors, or any webcams and security cameras for that matter allow access via the Internet.

The device normally comes with a default password with the account – a great one is admin for the username and admin for the password. Many people don’t change the password from the default, which means anyone who bothers to search Google for the default password for a device knows the password!

But how can they find your baby monitor, webcam, security camera on the Internet?


By using a free service, which is often referred to as “Google for devices”.

There are a few examples but the main device search website is and its job is to search the ENTIRE internet looking for devices connected to the Internet and then provide helpful information about each device.

So if you want to search for baby cams that are accessible on the Internet in the USA then you can use Shodan to search. Then it’s a simple matter to access each baby cam’s login page (which Shodan helpfully provides) and try admin/admin or whatever the default credentials are.

For a business, it doesn’t just stop at security systems and webcams; it also includes firewalls, routers and other network devices which are far more serious as these devices allow access to your network! is a very helpful website that records all default accounts and passwords for most network devices and its free and public to use.

The way to think of this is that it provides a handy front door to your computer systems for anyone with Internet access!

The lesson to remember is when you install a new device or software application, you should identify the default accounts provided and change the default password!


Congratulations on getting this far. I can see you are serious about increasing the IT security of your business and that is a very good thing!

In summary, the five tips are:

  1. Remove local admin rights from general user’s accounts – for general user accounts do not grant local admin rights as this will allow your staff to install any software they want, which often results in malicious software being installed as well.
  2. Patch regularly – patch at least monthly and any critical security patches should be installed as quickly as possible.
  3. Use strong and unique passwords – avoid reusing the same password, especially for your business systems, and use strong passwords. I use this site to generate strong and unique passwords:
  4. Think before you click – train your staff to think before clicking on an email attachment or URL within an email (or via chat applications, etc.). Teach your staff what a legitimate email should look like based on your business and relationships with external entities. Also, if a URL looks strange to you then don’t click it without researching first or ask a workmate what they think about the URL.
  5. Change default passwords – any device added to your environment probably comes with a default admin account and default password. Treat all default passwords as publicly known. Change the default password ASAP, especially before it’s connected to your network. This also applies to any software installed.

Next Must Read Post for Small Business

Do you accept credit cards for payment? If you do then you need to read this post-> Do I Need To Be PCI Compliant?

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IT Security

Developing an eCommerce Website: 7 Must-Do Privacy Steps


Setting up a website is effortless these days. You buy your hosting, find a platform, pick a name, and voila – you’re a site owner. The real challenge comes when you need to develop every bit of it before it goes public. It continues when it goes live since your task is to keep it safe and secure.

With digital crime growing every day, keeping a website safe from fraud and hacking is challenging. During Covid-19 there were up to 30,000 cyber attacks every day. Any competent business person whose success depends on online sales knows that a significant breach or several small chargebacks can kill everything they’ve done since the start.

Privacy & Security On eCommerce Sites

Selling your products or services online has a huge earning potential. It offers you a more expansive and virtually unlimited reach. According to Statista research, around 270 million Americans make online purchases in a year. That brings a total of $548 billion into the eCommerce industry every year.

However, the money you’ll be receiving from your eCommerce store, i.e., the website, won’t change hands invisibly. You’ll need people’s information, a lot of which is personal, to process their payments and deliver the products and services. Unless you have a good privacy and safety strategy in place, this will be impossible to do.

Did you know that every month, there is an average of 249 fraud attempts? In 2018, it prevented only 182 fraud attempt and in 2020 FTC received over 2 million consumer fraud reports.

People are warier of the rising online crime than ever. They put extra caution into sharing their personal information, which means that people won’t trust you enough to buy from your website unless you put safety measures in place.

The online world is highly reliant on word-of-mouth. It means that, even if you suffer a smaller hack that doesn’t hurt your company badly, the word can spread pretty fast, instantly ruining your reputation and credibility.

Not to mention, failing to implement the necessary safety measures can equal breaking the law. You’ll be up for penalties and consequences. It’s why if you’ve decided to put your eCommerce business idea into action, you need to take all the precautions to keep privacy to an optimal level.

Critical Privacy & Security Tasks

Here are the critical privacy and security steps that every eCommerce website creator should take.

Get familiar with the applicable laws

As crime grows online, so does the number of security steps businesses need to take to keep their customers safe. Data is beneficial to companies these days. It allows them to sell products, track the market, analyze and create their marketing strategies, and communicate with customers. However, it is as much of a threat as it is an asset.

The call for strengthening the data privacy of consumers has been heard all around the globe. Every year, we hear new legislative changes that ensure consumers’ privacy and security who buy things online. There are currently 100 countries spanning six continents with privacy laws in place, attempting to protect internet users’ information.

If you want to build a trustworthy business and avoid legal issues, you need to operate within the confines of the laws applicable to you. For example, if you’re in California, you should constantly be up to date with the latest ccpa laws and regulations. These are carefully crafted to keep consumers safe.

The California Consumer Protection Act or CCPA is one of the latest additions to privacy laws worldwide. It was enacted on January 1 of 2020. At this point, eCommerce businesses had more than a year to understand and ensure that their companies are doing the necessary to protect consumers.

With that in mind, before you put your website online, you need to make privacy your priority—this is the best way to get started.

In addition to ensuring that your website complies with the CCPA regulations, ensure that you’re informed on other applicable laws and regulations. Why is this important?

GDPR, for example, (the European Union privacy law) requires all companies who sell to customers within the Union’s borders to be compliant with their rules and regulations. If you want to avoid harsh penalties, you should get familiar with their regulations also.

Trademark your logo and company name

Your business might be new for now, and therefore, there’ll probably be little interest in stealing it. However, as it grows, you might be a victim of identity theft – but for your company. The most essential tip an eCommerce business person can get these days is to trademark their company name and logo.

Before you choose a name, make sure that it is clear to use as a trademark. Finding an available domain name does not mean that your choice is known as a trademark. To ensure that no one will try and take your company name and logo, you need to go through this process as soon as possible.

If you don’t know how to register a name as a trademark, seek a legal professional that will process your request through the Patent and Trademark Office. Registering your company’s and website’s name protects you against infringers, future copiers, as well as knockoffs.

Pick a secure eCommerce platform

There are many choices in terms of where you can open your eCommerce store. But, if you want to enrich consumers’ privacy, you should take this step very seriously. Building a store on Software-as-a-Service platforms like Shopify or BigCommerce is an excellent idea since these sites help you build, host, and keep your store safe.

In most cases, eCommerce platforms are chosen for their convenience of use, functionality, range of design, and security features. The goal here is to find solutions that provide SSL certificates, encrypted payment gateways, and suitable authentication protocols for buyers and sellers.


SSL or Secure Sockets Layer is a security technology that allows you to establish encrypted links between browsers and web servers. Using HTTP with SSL ensures that all data through the web server and browser remains integral and private. It’s vital if you wish to ensure your customers’ privacy and keep the eCommerce transactions secure.

Having HTTPS websites means higher Google rankings, improved security, increased customer confidence, and conversions.

Keep the website updated

Not only should you update your site to meet the latest changes in laws and regulations, but also to prevent fraud. Yes, website owners can also take measures to reduce the risk of being hacked. As of 2019, 56% of all the traffic online comes from automated sources like spammers, impersonators, hacking tools, and bots.

Unpatched extensions and applications make websites very easy targets. This is why you should always keep the site and its back-end software updated with new security patches.

Opt for strong passwords


Those bots and hacking tools are a brute force of hacking. They put endless combinations of letters into a site attempting to enter it. Unless you have a strong password, they might get lucky and crack it. Then, it won’t matter what type of site you have or which laws you’ve tried to follow – they’ll be in.

So, make strong passwords to enter your site, but also request strong passwords from your team. Have your employees use strong passwords, a combo of different-sized letters, symbols, or numbers. Also, remind people to change their passwords often, like, for example, twice a year.

Even if your site has flawless security and many measures in place, many websites’ weakest links are customers. People tend to have poor password hygiene. They’ll use the same passwords or try something very simple that they’ll remember easily. That being said, have some rules in terms of password creation for your consumers. This is to keep their data safe, so you’re doing them a favor by asking this, too.

Also use MFA (multi-factor authentication) wherever you can.  Your clients will thank you for it.

Learn to recognize the signs of fraud

Your job does not end when you take measures to create a safe website. To keep people’s private information secure, you need to remain alert at all times. Fraud prevention can only be as successful, which is why you need to learn to recognize the signs of fraud and stop it before it is too late.

To do this, take a peek at the types of emails used to sign up, the customer order history, check for suspicious emails, etc. Keep in mind that fraudsters target higher value items and usually have their orders shipped to obscure addresses.

Final thoughts

The eCommerce industry can be fruitful for those with a clear idea and quality products and services. However, if you want to succeed and survive in this market, you must put the customers’ privacy as one of your priorities. Remember – this is never a one-and-done deal. Threats change and evolve every day. At this time, the smartest move you can make to keep your reputation and business intact is to maintain a security-focused mindset.

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IT Security

Take These Steps And Protect Your Business From A Cybercrime

cyber crime

You might have read the news story surrounding the events that happened at Mal A Largo. The prestigious club favoured by the president was recently breached by a woman who claimed she was a member. She wasn’t. When she was inside, she suggested she was there for a conference.

There was no conference taking place and the woman entered the club with multiple pieces of tech. One of which contained malware data. The president was in the club at the time and it is not currently known what the woman’s intentions were. It is however clear, that she almost succeeded.

This shouldn’t come as a massive shock. After all, recent reports have suggested that by 2021 there will be a cyber attack on a business every twenty seconds. That’s crazy and it won’t just be big businesses that are exposed either.

Indeed, experts suggest that smaller companies will be targeted because criminals won’t expect them to have the latest protection measures in place.

This leaves an important question: Is your business secure and prepared for the threat of a cyber attack?

Truthfully, the answer is probably no. But you can take steps and make changes to ensure that your business is protected.

Let’s look at some of the ways you can do this, plus here’s a quick recap on what you need to know about cyber crime and malware.

What is Malware?

You don’t need to know the history of malware but it’s kind of interesting so here’s a short summary.  Its beginnings are thought to be in 1949, with  computer scientist John von Neumann, however the first documented viruses were in the 1970s.

There was the creeper worm by Bob Thomas and in the eighties the man credited as the father of viruses, Fred Cohen really developed the computer virus as we know it today.

Not all viruses are bad, though malware is and it’s thought that a third of all computers world-wide have been infected at some time.

Hard-hitting viruses

There have been some very hard hitting computer viruses over the years including:

  • 2013 – Cyptolocker. This is one of the early ramsonware programs. Ramsonware in itself is interesting insofar as it denies the user access to their computer with threats to publish the users’ data unless a ransom is paid.
  • 2014 – Backoff. Known for hitting the Point of Sale (POS) machines to steal credit card data.
  • 2016 – Cerber. One of the most infective viruses according to Microsoft.
  • 2017 – WannaCry Ransomware. Appropriately named as many companies attacked by it did ‘want to cry’.

Source – a brief history of malware

What is Cybercrime?

Simply put, cybercrime is the term given to describe any criminal activity online, i.e. uses the Internet. It’s far-reaching, insofar as it includes everything from ramsonware and other viruses, to hacking, phishing and spamming.

So, what can you do to make sure your business is protected?

Installed And Up To Date

It’s important to make sure that you are installing anti-virus software. Once it is installed, make sure that you are updating it regularly. Many people think that once you have installed anti-virus software on your tech, your issues are over. This just isn’t the case. Indeed, it’s instead possible and even likely that you fall behind on updates and suddenly there’s basically no protection for your business.

This is usually because people are relying on free antivirus software. Free software is better than nothing, but it’s definitely not the ideal solution. If you want the highest level of protection, then you need to invest in the best software on the market. This isn’t free but it does provide fantastic value for your company.

Choose Strong Passwords

Passwords are incredibly dangerous if they are easy to guess or if they include information that people could quickly access. As such, there should be no personal information used to create your passwords. It should be a random string of numbers and letters. These are almost impossible to guess or hack and as such will keep your sensitive data secure.

The Latest Tech

Do make sure that you are investing in the latest technology and equipment. The latest tech will usually have preventive measures in place to ensure that software is protected. Particularly if they are running the latest programs and systems.

You should be careful of methods for saving money as well such as BYOD initiatives. While this can cut costs down, you can’t guarantee that the devices that employees are as secure as they need to be. Investing in the latest technology yourself will always be the best option.

We hope this helps you understand how to secure your business from a potential cybercrime.

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IT Security

How Compliant is your Small Business?

women manager

Operating a small business doesn’t mean you can be complacent with how you’re protecting customer data and the prevention of the real threat of credit card theft.

Hacking gangs are alive and well hence the tightening of data protection rules  in the western world including the European Union’s GDPR.

Data Protection

So there’s two major compliances to work on immediately if you’ve not done so already.  Doing the basics  to ensure your business is in compliance with data protection laws including the GDPR even if you’re not in Europe is a must-do and here’s how you can get started if you’ve not done it already.

Every website collecting email addresses and more, need to comply with the requirements for protecting customer data.  There’s more that’s needed too see (Website policies) further on in this article.

PCI Compliance

There is also a pressing concern for all businesses, eCommerce and particularly those in the retail sector to commit to  PCI compliance.  You might be wondering what it is and is your operation too small to be bothered with it right now.

A really good explanation of what PCI DSS is and why any business transactions using credit cards needs to comply can be found in this article on BusinessBlogs.

Self Assessment

Smaller businesses can do a self assessment and why you might sigh with relief, don’t get too comfortable, you’ll still need to know exactly how to do a PCI self assessment and how to get set up so when your business grows it’s got everything in place for external assessments.

PCI and Networks

The real difficulty lies in understanding how sensitive data moves along your network which is a must for assessment.  The wireless LANs and other connectivity points like USBs and bluetooth can be penetrated hence they need to be monitored and secure.  This is where a PCI compliant specialist comes into their own not only for your self assessment but also when using external PCI auditors for your compliance.

Website Policies

Earlier on we mentioned protection of customer data and laws like GDPR.

Any business with a website that collects customer data can not avoid the basics website features that allow for transparency of how customer data is collected, utilised and shared with privacy and cookies policies.

This really is the norm now and it’s the entry level for all websites so all website developers will implement it, so it’s just the older sites and the Do-it-yourself crowd who need to be aware of the requirements.

Website visitor expectation is they’ll see the pop up that asks for acceptance of re. your website cookies policy and they’ll take the necessary action.  Without it, your business is not perceived as being secure and visitors may take no further action i.e. they’ll exit your site.

All websites should also be using the SSL (HTTPS), and be mobile ready.  Plus have all the bells and whistles in place to manage customer data collection and management for protection of customer data.


Ignorance is not bliss and it will be hurting your business if your website is not on top of it’s compliance requirements.   Get curious, find out what you need to know and when you need to take action to keep the hackers out and the visitors in.

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