New entrepreneurs are often unaware of the many legalities surrounding a new business. Most specifically, the legal structure of your business. This refers to the type of entity your business is and can play a huge role in deciding what taxes you pay as well as all the legal paperwork you need to fill in.
Each legal structure has its pros and cons, but which one is best for your business? Take a look at each structure below, read all the information, and decide which one is best suited for your business model:
A sole proprietorship is the most common and simple legal structure for your business. This is where you are the sole owner of your business and are responsible for everything – including your assets and liabilities. This means it is your personal responsibility for all of your business finances, you are in charge of the money you make and must also be in charge of any money you owe. Recent research suggests that over half of businesses follow this legal structure.
The main pro of this structure is that you are in charge of the business, so all the money you make goes to you and you alone. However, the downside is that you’re liable for everything too. So, if someone has an issue with your business, they can sue you personally for it. Also, you get taxed as if your profits are personal income. What does this mean? It means you only pay individual tax and not company tax as well.
The second legal structure is a partnership, where your business is owned by more than one person. Within this structure, there are two different types of a partnership; general and limited. With a general partnership, this is where everything is divided equally between the parties involved. You each take on the same responsibilities and liabilities. A limited one is where one person is in charge, and the others make a significant contribution but not as much as the main person.
If your business is structured as a general partnership, then it can fall under the sole proprietorship status too. This means all partners are in control of everything, which is a positive as it means you have more brains to bounce around ideas and more resources too. It also means you might have enough money to avoid applying for startup loans, which also means you avoid debt. If you’re a limited partnership, then you’ll fall under Limited Liability Partnership (LLP) status. This means that those with limited control aren’t as liable as the main controller. This can have its pros as it makes it harder to be personally liable during lawsuits if you have limited control. However, the downside is you don’t get an equal share of the profits.
In general, partnerships are good because of the collaboration involved, but bad because of the fact you have to share your profits between other people, meaning your personal take-home is less than if you owned it alone. Plus, another positive is that it follows the same tax structure as a sole proprietorship; you only pay personal income tax.
Limited Liability Company (LLC)
LLC’s are fast becoming a popular legal structure for businesses. Why? Because they allow you to enjoy the main benefits of a partnership (the collaboration, paying individual tax) without some of the negatives.
Mainly, an LLC consists of partners or shareholders – people that have a stake in your business. They’ve used their money to help fund things, and are partially in control of how things are run along with yourself. The key point is, with an LLC, all partners and shareholders aren’t personally liable for any legal issues your business gets into. This means if you fall into debt or get sued, you aren’t liable unless there’s concrete evidence that you’re responsible for the issue at hand.
An LLC is good as it offers you liability protection while also granting the tax benefits you get with partnerships and sole proprietorships. The only negatives are similar to partnerships, any profits you make need to be shared, and you don’t have full control of your business.
Once your business establishes itself and starts to grow, you might want to consider switching its legal structure to that of a corporation. A corporation is a business that’s completely separate from you, the owner. While you have your legal rights, so does your business. You can own stock through your business, buy property through it, even sue people through it. It’s a legal entity created with the sole purpose of conducting business. As such, it also has to pay a separate tax. There are many types of corporations, with C corporations being the most common. These are businesses where the owners pay personal income tax, and the business itself pays a separate business tax.
The major benefit of a corporation is that you are completely protected from personal liability. If anything bad happens to the company, such as a lawsuit or heavy debt, you’re not liable, much like with an LLC. The major downside is that you pay two loads of tax; corporation tax and individual tax.
Finally, you have an S corporation which is similar in structure to a C corporation but with one clear difference. Your business is still a separate legal entity, but the tax situation is different. Instead of paying two types of tax, you only have to pay individual tax on any profits you make.
The catch is that you have to fulfill certain eligibility requirements to be classed as an S corporation. For example, you can’t have over a hundred shareholder, and you must be a domestic company. You also can’t have shareholders who are partners, it must only be individuals.
Each of these legal structures comes with positive and negative features. The main things to consider are how much control you have over your business, what tax laws you must abide by, and how liable you will be if things go wrong.
What You Ought to Know About Quant Traders
Quantitative trading is an area of quantitative finance that is highly sophisticated. This article introduces some of the basics of a quantitative trading system and the necessary background to become a qualified quantitative trader.
What is Quantitative Trading?
Quantitative trading or quant trading is a type of trading that uses quantitative analysis as the basic strategy to identify trading profit possibility, including mathematical calculations. The most common data inputs in the quantitative analysis are price and volume.
Transactions involved in quant trading are usually large, which includes the sale and purchase of hundred or even thousands of shares and securities. This is because quantitative trading is typically practiced in the financial institutions.
The four primary components of a quantitative trading system include:
- Strategy identification
- Backtesting strategy
- Execution system
- Risk management
What Does a Quant Trader do?
Quantitative traders, also known as quants, utilize modern technology, comprehensive databases, numbers and mathematics to derive a logical trading decision. Using mathematical models, quantitative traders then identify trading opportunities.
Quant traders research the available price and data from the enormous amount of data in algorithm trading and high-frequency trading, find profitable trading opportunities, create relevant strategies, and grab the opportunity faster with the help of computer programs.
Generally, quant traders need an in-depth understanding and knowledge of mathematics, possess computer skills, and have some exposure to trading.
Technical Background of a Quant Trader
To become a full-fledged quant trader, one needs to have the following professional background:
- Great with numbers: Quant traders must be excellent with numbers and quantitative analysis. An in-depth understanding of mathematics is required to carry out trading activities such as data researching, results testing, development, and implementation of trade strategies.
- Educated in a relevant course and training: Studies involving theoretical concepts and the introduction to quantitative trading provide a better background for quant traders. This may include a master’s degree or a diploma involving financial engineering, quantitative financial modeling, or any course with electives in quantitative.
- Armed with unique trading strategies: Quant traders should have in-depth knowledge about common trading strategies and have the ability to develop their unique trading strategy.
- Possess programming skills: Quant traders should know at least one programming language such as Python, Java, C++, or Perl. They also need to have knowledge about automated trading, data mining, analysis, and research, which are usually involved in algorithmic trading and high-frequency trading.
- Familiar with the computers: Quant traders need to be familiar with analysis software, spreadsheets, and broker trading. Also, they should be able to develop their algorithms on real-time data.
Soft Skills of a Quant Trader
Besides the above-mentioned technical skills, quant traders need to possess the following soft skills:
- The spirit of a trader: Successful traders will brainstorm innovative trading ideas, can take on a massive volume of data, quickly adapt to the ever-changing trading market and can work on extended hours.
- Able to take risks: Quant traders are risk-takers that understand the impact of risk, its management, and mitigation techniques.
- Accept failure: Although the developed strategy may seem foolproof, failure is sometimes inevitable. Quant traders must always be ready to accept defeat, willing to let go of their concepts and develop a new one.
Becoming a quant trader may seem complicated, and it requires a lot of hard work. However, the lucrative income and innovative system of quantitative trading make quant trader an excellent career choice.
How can a personal loan help you save money?
People in debt have traditionally been unable to easily consolidate it all. In the past, the best tactic has been to focus on one type of debt at a time (usually starting with the debt accruing the most interest) to clear it.
About 20 years ago, a new product became available called a personal loan. These unsecured loans were designed to help people manage multiple debt sources and repair their credit score. As with most types of unsecured debt, applicants are typically expected to provide a guarantor. Such a loan can be anything from £1,000 to £50,000 with a fixed interest rate payable over a fixed term, typically 4-5 years or more. Applicants use these instant guarantor loans as they realise just how much money they can save when used in certain circumstances.
No matter the interest rate on existing debt, personal loans are lower
One reason most people take out a personal loan is to consolidate different debts of varying and disparate interest rates. If you have £5,000 on a credit card (typical APR 29.9%), £1,000 overdraft (typical APR 15-20%), £1,000 of debt on a store card (typical APR an eye-watering 39.9%) among others, that’s a lot of interest you’re paying every month needlessly.
When taking out a personal loan, you’ll notice that the APRs are much lower. The average rate is 8% when borrowing under £10,000 and 5% when borrowing over this amount. Pay off the outstanding balances with the new instant guarantor loan and you will stop accruing all that interest, clearing the balance instead.
Personal loans put a deadline on repayment
People, couples and families with a lot of debt spread over multiple areas often feel there is no end in sight for the debt. This is especially the case for those types of debt with no deadline such as an overdraft, and credit and store cards.
The ability to consolidate all this debt into one personal loan automatically creates a deadline. Sometimes you may choose this; sometimes the provider will specify when it will be. Not only will you know the rate of interest that will accrue on top of the debt, you will also know how long you have left to pay off that debt. The stress and anxiety of accruing more and more is alleviated and you can prepare for having more liquid cash once your personal loan comes to its natural end.
Early payment option will save more
With lower rates of interest than most common types of borrowing, personal loans help you save money as a matter of course. When you are able and willing to pay back the debt faster than anticipated, this will save you even more money.
Not all personal loans allow you to settle early, for example pay off the last six months of payments in a lump sum while the term remains, but most will. You may be required to pay an early settlement penalty or premium such as one-or-two-months interest. If there is an early repayment option, carefully check the agreement’s wording. Even with a penalty on top, it could still be less than the interest you would have paid if you had let the loan run its course.
Personal loans improve your credit score
Customers who use unsecured guarantor personal loans use them to consolidate and manage debt as well as reducing their interest burden. So long as you stick to the terms of the agreement and have enough money each month to make the payment, your credit score will begin its improvement process.
What does this have to do with saving money? It’s a long-term strategy. Most credit cards and loans are not open to people with a bad credit score, however, there are ways you could potentially be able to get a loan with a bad credit score. Unfortunately, those loans that are not open are usually those products and services with the best interest rates and the most attractive rewards. With an improved credit score, you can apply for credit products with lower interest rates, better payment terms, and even earn a little something in the process such as cashback or air miles.
Cheaper than finance agreements
Most of the items in our list concern people looking to improve their credit rating and those with borrowing spread across multiple accounts. If you’re in the market for a new or nearly new vehicle, the seller will offer financing terms. They tend to offer a single product with a single finance provider; in short, it’s a take it or leave it choice. This is not always the cheapest way to buy a new car, but it is convenient which is why most people accept the terms that the motor trader offers.
Before singing that finance agreement, consider a personal loan. Interest rates are lower on average than motor finance. When the vehicle’s price tag is over £10,000, that interest rate drops considerably, sometimes as much as half of the annual interest rate.
Financing A Business With A Home Equity Loan
Finding funds for a business is no easy task. Qualifying for a business loan is not guaranteed; therefore many companies leverage their owners’ assets like the family home to raise the funds they require in their enterprise.
There are many ways to use personally guaranteed funds too and one option is what’s called a home equity loan or home equity line of credit, These loans can also be ideal for debt consolidation of say high-interest borrowing like credit cards, personal and short term loans but in this blog post we’re focusing on how these loans work for businesses.
There are many more obstacles or hoops to jump through when seeking an actual business loan and often it’s the financial statements of the business that fail to pass the lending criteria due to the startup phase requiring more investment and not showing a profit.
Entrepreneurs starting out, are therefore renown for sourcing investment from wherever they can get it. The credit card has been the go-to source for funds, but the interest rates are very high, so it’s not a long term borrowing solution for a business.
Before long, the owner is seeking other sources to keep the business afloat or to grow it. They may take out personal loans but before long their requirements exceed what they borrow without additional security so this is where many use their home.
As a business owner, it may make perfect sense to use a home equity line of credit to draw down funds for the business and then repay them when in lump sums and repeat as and when required. So what is a HELOC?
This type of loan allows you to have an open line of credit on the equity you have in your property.
HELOC’s has longer repayment periods that can be 10 – 20 years much like a usual mortgage and as the property owner you can borrow up to 85% of the home’s value minus what you may owe it. For example, if your home is valued at $750,000 and you have a mortgage of $250,000 on it already. Your line of credit may be as much as $425,000.
HELOC rates are higher than your standard mortgage rate, so it’s very much ‘caveat emptor’ or buyer beware, get professional expert advice from your accountant, financial advisor and maybe also your lawyer. Remember all loan agreements are legal documents, and they have terms and conditions that the borrower must comply.
There are many other ways to fund your business, including angel investors, offering shareholdings, so while using the equity in your home is an option it may not be the best way forward as the risk is your business cannot pay back what it’s borrowed, and you are personally liable to repay it or lose it.
Remember it is your equity and if your business borrows too much of it and can not repay it, and the lender calls in the loan it could be that you are forced to sell your home. It’s a dreary thought, but it’s better to know the pros and cons when borrowing money for any venture.
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